Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare but deadly virus disease that is transmitted from wild animals to humans and spreads in the human population via human-to-human transmission.
The illness begins with symptoms such as a high fever, extreme weakness, muscle discomfort, and a sore throat. Vomiting, diarrhea, and – in certain circumstances – both internal and external bleeding, known as hemorrhaging, are possible next stages.
This piece will evaluate the article, “What is Ebola and why is Uganda’s outbreak so serious?” by Anne Soy and give out more facts.
The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) fatalities are discussed in this article, with a focus on Uganda, an African country in the east. In contrast to the rural sections of the nation, it is clear from Soy, 2022, that medical staff find it challenging to control outbreaks in Uganda’s metropolitan areas like Kampala, the country’s capital.
The author claims that this is the result of the nation’s high population density and ease of movement, even internationally; as a result, the virus can quickly spread through an infected but asymptomatic patient. Asymptomatic individuals cannot spread the infection, though.
The medical teams often take quick action after finding contacts of confirmed patients by isolating and keeping tabs on them for at least the virus’s 21-day incubation period. This explains why treating this disease quickly is crucial.
It is difficult for a regular citizen to know who to interact with and who to avoid, making it difficult for the disease to be further prevented.
Soy claims that direct touch with bodily fluids, infected objects, or settings allows Ebola to transmit from one patient to another. If mourners come into contact with the body of a fallen victim in a funeral, it provides a perfect opportunity for the virus to transfer to its next casualty.
According to the Health Ministry, there were 18 deaths associated with known occurrences where the remains were buried before being identified.
The World Health Organization (WHO) counts the 18 suspected Ebola deaths; however, Kampala only counts those where the disease has been positively identified, hence there is a disparity between those numbers and WHO data. According to WHO, the death rate ranges from 41% to 100%.
Cause for Alarm Given the Outbreak?
If left untreated, the Ebola virus’s acute, devastating sickness frequently results in death. This answers our question: Yes, there is cause for concern given that the average case fatality rate for the EVD is roughly 50%; in previous outbreaks, case fatality rates have ranged from 25% to 90%.
This indicates that on average, five people die from this disease for every ten affected individuals. This can be confirmed by the case of West Africa; the greatest Ebola outbreak since the virus’s discovery in 1976 between 2014 and 2016.
This disease significantly affected the entire world, but especially West Africa. 11,310 fatalities and 28,616 EVD cases overall were recorded in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. When the outbreak extended outside of these three nations, there were an additional 36 cases and 15 fatalities (Mack, et al., 2016).
Consider Kampala’s first victim as evidence of its fatality in this piece. A confirmed case’s contact, who reportedly traveled to the capital using a false identity, is the source of the infection in Kampala.
He ignored going to a hospital and made efforts to consult a traditional healer before turning to a hospital, where he was admitted, but he eventually passed away from the sickness. One family with whom he had contact had seven affected individuals.
This demonstrates how the response team’s ability to limit the disease is hampered by illiteracy, making the participation of such contacts with response teams essential. He could have spared his own life as well as the lives of seven other people if this person had been more responsible (Li, et al., 2015).
A number of vaccinations are used to prevent Ebola, although there are five recognized strains of the illness, four of which are known to be harmful to humans: The Tai Forest virus, formerly known as the Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus, the Bundibugyo virus, the Sudan virus, and the Zaire Ebola virus.
In contrast to the Zaire Ebola virus, which has a number of licensed vaccinations, the Sudan strain being discussed in this article, currently lacks an authorized vaccine. This explains why the epidemic in Uganda is significant and alarming.
Soy goes on to contrast the effects of the two strains—Zaire and Sudan. Over 11,000 people died as a result of the worst Ebola outbreak ever in West Africa, which the Zaire strain was to blame for between December 2013 and 2016.
As a result of the more than 28,000 cases in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, researchers worked hard to develop an Ebola vaccine.
The then-unlicensed Ervebo vaccine, created by Merck, was used during an outbreak of the Zaire strain in the west of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, leading to its clearance by the WHO, which stated that it had reduced infections and saved lives (Berge, et al., 2017). This was two years after that epidemic came to an end.
Treatment and Precautions
The article being evaluated claims that the priority of the response teams has been contact tracing, or locating those who have been in close proximity to the patients, particularly those who attended the local funerals.
Facilities for isolation and treatment have been set up in the affected areas. As the infection spreads, so does their capacity (Mertzlufft 2014).
Additionally, mobile labs were set up so that people wouldn’t have to travel for testing and run the risk of spreading the virus. Additionally, residents have been urged to use caution whenever they are in public places.
Ebola struck West Africa and quickly spread to other regions of Africa, and Uganda, a third-world nation, has not been any different. The discussion in the article is based on Uganda, and it is supported by statistics from other countries like Liberia.
The author has thoroughly explained to her readers what EVD is, how it is spread, and advancements on the vaccine. The final section of the story describes how the public and emergency personnel are controlling the spread of illness.
Doctors suggest avoiding contact with cases by refraining from shaking hands, washing hands with soap and water, and disinfecting surfaces with chlorinated water (Shuchman 2014).
Written by: Emmanuel J. Osemota
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