Cholera: An Ongoing Public Health Challenge 

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Cholera, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, remains a significant public health challenge, especially in regions with inadequate water and sanitation infrastructure. This acute diarrheal illness can lead to severe dehydration and death if untreated.

This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention strategies of cholera, highlighting the need for sustained public health efforts to combat this disease. 


Cholera has a long history of pandemics, with the seventh pandemic starting in 1961 and continuing today, predominantly affecting regions in South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Haiti (Ali et al., 2015). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 1.3 to 4 million cases of cholera annually, resulting in 21,000 to 143,000 deaths worldwide (WHO, 2017).

Outbreaks are often linked to contaminated water sources and poor sanitation, with climate change and population displacement further exacerbating the spread. 


The pathogenesis of cholera involves the ingestion of water or food contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Once ingested, the bacteria colonize the small intestine and produce cholera toxin (CT). The CT binds to the intestinal mucosa, leading to the activation of adenylate cyclase and an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels.

This increase in cAMP causes the secretion of chloride ions into the intestinal lumen, followed by water and other electrolytes, resulting in severe diarrhea (Ramamurthy et al., 2020). 

 Clinical Features 

Cholera presents with acute onset of watery diarrhea, often described as “rice-water stools,” and is frequently accompanied by vomiting and abdominal cramps. In severe cases, rapid fluid loss can lead to dehydration, hypovolemic shock, and death within hours if untreated (Harris et al., 2012).

Clinical management involves prompt rehydration therapy, either orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of dehydration. Antibiotics such as doxycycline and azithromycin can reduce the duration of diarrhea and the volume of rehydration fluids needed (García et al., 2018). 


The cornerstone of cholera treatment is prompt and adequate rehydration. Oral rehydration salts (ORS) are highly effective for most patients, while severe cases may require intravenous fluids (Nelson et al., 2011).

Antibiotic therapy can be beneficial, particularly in moderate to severe cases, to reduce the duration of illness and bacterial shedding. Zinc supplementation has also been shown to improve outcomes in children with cholera by reducing the duration and severity of diarrhea (Bhutta et al., 2013). 


Preventing cholera involves improving access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Public health strategies include: 

  1. Ensuring safe drinking water through treatment and safe storage.
  2. Promoting proper sanitation practices, including the use of latrines.
  3. Implementing good hygiene practices, such as handwashing with soap.

Vaccination is another crucial preventive measure. The oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have proven effective in preventing outbreaks and are recommended in high-risk areas (Clemens et al., 2017). OCVs provide protection for up to five years, with a cumulative two-dose regimen. 

 Case Study: Nigeria 

As of June 2024, Nigeria has been grappling with a severe cholera outbreak, representing one of the most critical public health emergencies in recent years. The outbreak, predominantly caused by the contamination of drinking water sources during the ongoing rainy season, has resulted in widespread illness and numerous fatalities.

As of June 19th, 2024, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) reported that Lagos State is the epicenter, with over 300 cases and approximately 15 deaths attributed to the disease so far (NCDC, 2024). The densely populated urban environment of Lagos, coupled with inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure, has exacerbated the spread of cholera, making containment efforts particularly challenging. 

In response to the outbreak, the Lagos State Government, in collaboration with international health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and International Organisation for Migration (IOM) has implemented several emergency measures. These include the establishment of cholera treatment centers, distribution of oral rehydration salts and antibiotics, and a city-wide vaccination campaign targeting vulnerable populations (WHO, 2024).

Furthermore, public health campaigns have been launched to educate residents on the importance of boiling water, maintaining good hygiene, and recognizing early symptoms of cholera. Despite these efforts, the outbreak highlights the urgent need for substantial, long-term investments in WASH infrastructure to prevent future occurrences and safeguard public health in Lagos (UNICEF, 2024). 


Cholera remains a significant global health threat, particularly in regions with poor water and sanitation infrastructure. Effective management of cholera requires a multifaceted approach, including prompt rehydration, appropriate use of antibiotics, and preventive measures such as improving WASH infrastructure and vaccination. Continuous public health efforts and international cooperation are essential to combat this ongoing challenge and prevent future outbreaks. 


Ali, M., Nelson, A. R., Lopez, A. L., & Sack, D. A. (2015). Updated global burden of cholera in endemic countries. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(6), e0003832. 

Bhutta, Z. A., Das, J. K., Walker, N., Rizvi, A., Campbell, H., Rudan, I., & Black, R. E. (2013). Interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: What works and at what cost? The Lancet, 381(9875), 1417-1429. 

Clemens, J. D., Nair, G. B., Ahmed, T., Qadri, F., & Holmgren, J. (2017). Cholera. The Lancet, 390(10101), 1539-1549. 

García, C. C., Seper, A., Klose, K. E., & Blanke, S. R. (2018). Cholera toxin: An intracellular journey into the cytosol by way of the endoplasmic reticulum. Toxins, 10(11), 469. 

Harris, J. B., LaRocque, R. C., Qadri, F., Ryan, E. T., & Calderwood, S. B. (2012). Cholera. The Lancet, 379(9835), 2466-2476. 

Nelson, E. J., Harris, J. B., Morris Jr, J. G., Calderwood, S. B., & Camilli, A. (2011). Cholera transmission: The host, pathogen and bacteriophage dynamic. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 7(10), 693-702. 

Ramamurthy, T., Mutreja, A., Weill, F. X., Das, B., & Ghosh, A. (2020). Revisiting the global epidemiology of cholera in conjunction with the genomics of Vibrio cholerae. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 569293. 

World Health Organization (WHO). (2017). Cholera. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera 

Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. (2024). Cholera Outbreak in Lagos: June 2024 Update. Retrieved from [NCDC](http://www.ncdc.gov.ng) 

World Health Organization. (2024). Emergency Response to Cholera Outbreak in Lagos, Nigeria. Retrieved from [WHO](http://www.who.int) 

UNICEF. (2024). UNICEF’s Efforts in Combatting Cholera in Lagos. Retrieved from [UNICEF](http://www.unicef.org) 

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